Organ-Sciences 1

Organ-Based Sciences for the Anesthesia Written Boards - Part 1

Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

  • Physiology: Metabolism (Substrates, Aerobic and Anaerobic), Intracranial Pressure (Brain Volume, Elastance and Compliance), Increased ICP, Herniation, Electroencephalography ([EEG] Wave Patterns, Frequency and Amplitude, Raw and Processed, Spectral Edge), Sleep, Convulsions, O2 and CO2, Hypothermia, Brain Death, Depth of Anesthesia (Burst Suppression, Electrical Silence, Specific Anesthetic, Drug Effects, Evoked Responses (Morphology, Effects of Ischemia and Anesthetics, Somatosensory, Visual, Brainstem Auditory, Motor)
  • Anatomy (Regional Anesthesia, Main Nerve Blocks [Includes Techniques and Comparisons of
    Techniques], Autonomic (Stellate, Celiac, Lumbar Sympathetic), Head and Neck (Retrobulbar/Peribulbar, Facial, Trigeminal Nerve and Branches), Cervical Plexus, Glossopharyngeal, Superior Laryngeal, Transtracheal, Occipital, Extremities (Brachial Plexus [Interscalene, Supraclavicular, Infraclavicular, Axillary]), Ulnar, Radial, Median, Musculocutaneous, Sciatic, Femoral, Lateral Femoral Cutaneous, Obturator, Lumbar Plexus (PSOAS Block), Popliteal Fossa, Ankle Block, Trunk (Intercostal, Paravertebral Somatic), Ilio-Inguinal, Genito-Femoral, Spine: Epidural (Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Caudal, Transforaminal), Spinal (Subarachnoid), Combined Spinal-Epidural, Facet
  • Pharmacology: Non-Anesthetic CNS Use: Major Actions, Comparison of Drugs, Effect on
    Respiration, Circulation, Adverse Effects, Pre-/Postanesthetic Medications, Opioids, Opioid Antagonists/Agonist-Antagonists, Alpha-2 Agonists (Clonidine, Dexmedetomidine), Tranquilizers (Butyrophenones, Benzodiazepines), Anticonvulsants (Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, Barbiturates, Others), Antidepressants, Anti-Parkinson Drugs, Arousal Agents (Physostigmine, Benzodiazepine Antagonists), Antiemetics and Aspiration Prophylaxis (Phenothiazines; Butyrophenone), Metoclopramide, Anticholinergics, Serotonin Antagonists, Antihistamines (H1 Blockers, H2 Blockers, Mixed Blockers), Antacids, Proton Pump Inhibitors, Substance Abuse and Addiction, Dependence (Chronic Opioid Dependence and Therapy, Pharmacologically-Assisted Opioid Withdrawal), Autonomic Drugs (Sympathetic, Transmitters and Types of Receptors, Target Organ Effects, Metabolic Effects, Agonist [Peripheral and Central Actions, Direct and Indirect Actions, Alpha vs. Beta vs. Mixed Agonists, Alpha and Beta-Receptor Subtype-Selective Agonists], Antagonists [Alpha and Beta Blockers, Selective Blockers, Ganglionic
    Blockers, Tocolytic Applications]), Parasympathetic (Transmitters, Muscarinic Effects, Nicotinic Effects, Agonists: Cholinergic and Anticholinesterases, Antagonists)
  • Clinical Science: Central Nervous System, Seizures, Coma (Traumatic, Infectious, Toxic Toxic-Metabolic, Cerebrovascular Accident [CVA]), Cerebral Hypoxia (Glasgow Coma Scale, Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Therapeutic Barbiturate Coma), Drug Intoxication (CNS Drugs, Carbon Monoxide, Insecticides, Nerve Gases), Paraplegia, Quadriplegia, Spinal Shock, Autonomic Hyperreflexia, Tetanus
  • Special Problems of Anesthesia for Neurosurgery: Increased Intracranial Pressure (Tumors, Hematomas, Hydrocephalus), Positioning: Prone, Sitting, Other, Head Stabilization in Tongs, Air Embolism, Cerebral Protection (from Hypoxia, Ischemia, Glucose Effects), Aneurysms and A-V Malformations, Cerebral Vasospasm, Interventional Neuroradiology; Coils and Embolization, Pituitary Adenomas, Trans-Sphenoidal Hypophysectomy, Anesthetic and Ventilatory Effects on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Fluid Management: Hypertonic Vs Isotonic Saline vs. Balanced Salt Solutions, Spinal Fluid Drainage, Stereotactic and Gamma-Knife Techniques, Deep Brain Stimulator Placement, Intra-Operative Wake-Up Techniques, Ventriculostomy

Respiratory System

  • Physiology: Ventilation-Perfusion (Measurement of Ventilation/Perfusion [V/Q] Ratio, Implications of Alveolar-Arterial O2 Gradient [A-aDO2], Arterial-Alveolar CO2 Gradient [A-aDCO2], Dead Space to Tidal
    Volume Ratio [Vd/Vt], Shunt Fraction [Qs/Qt], Lung Scan
  • Anatomy: Lungs (Divisions and Bronchoscopic Anatomy, Bronchial and Pulmonary Circulations, Microscopic Anatomy)
  • Biochemistry: Normal Acid-Base Regulation (Buffer Systems; Compensatory Mechanisms), Effects of Imbalance on Electrolytes and Organ Perfusion, Strong Ionic Difference (SID), ABG Interpretation, Anion Gap, Temperature Effect on Blood Gases (Alpha-Stat vs. pH-Stat)
  • Obstructive Disease: Upper Airway (Congenital, Infectious, Neoplastic, Traumatic, Foreign Body,
    Obstructive Sleep Apnea), Tracheobronchial: Congenital, Infectious, Neoplastic, Traumatic, Foreign
    Body, Parenchymal (Asthma, Bronchitis, Emphysema, COPD, Lung Abscess, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Mediastinal Masses)
  • Restrictive Disease: Neurologic (CNS Depression, Spinal Cord Dysfunction, Peripheral Nervous
    System), Musculoskeletal (Muscular, Skeletal, Obesity, Chest Trauma), Parenchymal (Atelectasis, Pneumonia, Interstitial Pneumonitis, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Respiratory Distress Syndrome [ARDS], Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Pleural and Mediastinal: Pneumo-, Hemo-, and Chylothorax, Pleural Effusion, Empyema, Bronchopleural Fistula, Other (Pain, Abdominal Distention)
  • Management of the Patient with Respiratory Disease: Evaluation (History and Physical Examination, Chest X-Ray, Arterial Blood Gases [ABGs], Pulmonary Function Tests [PFTs], Assessment of Perioperative Risk)
  • Anesthetic Management: Preoperative Preparation (Respiratory Therapy, Drug Therapy [Antibiotics, Bronchodilators, Mucolytics, Steroids], Tobacco Smoking Cessation [Techniques to Assist Patients, Benefits], Intraoperative Management (Monitoring, Choice of Anesthesia, Anesthetic Techniques [Nonpulmonary Surgery, Thoracic and Pulmonary Surgery, One-Lung Ventilation, Thoracoscopic Techniques, Lung Transplantation], Postoperative Care (Pain Management, Respiratory Therapy, Ventilator Support, Extubation Criteria)
  • Management of Respiratory Failure: Nonventilatory Respiratory Management (O2 Therapy and Toxicity,
    Tracheobronchial Toilet, Positive Airway Pressure, Respiratory Drugs), Ventilatory Management (Criteria for Ventilatory Commitment and Weaning, Mode of Ventilation: Conventional Mechanical Ventilation, PEEP, CPAP, IMV, SIMV, Pressure Support, Pressure Control, High Frequency Ventilation (Positive Pressure, Jet, Oscillation),
    Prone Ventilation, BIPAP, Airway Pressure-Release Ventilation
  • Complications and Side Effects of Mechanical Ventilation: Volutrauma, Barotrauma, Biotrauma
  • Management of Bronchospasm: Bronchodilator Drugs, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Acute and Chronic Management, Perioperative Management
  • Other Management Adjuncts: Nitric Oxide, Steroids
  • Lung Transplantation: Anesthetic Implications
Organ-Sciences 1
Course Information
Dr. Michael Ho
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